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Increasingly, our society is becoming more and more flushed with elderly citizens. With better health care and longer lifespans, the number of Americans over the age of 65 is projected to reach Healthy ageing is taking center stage as society must learn how to cater to this new generation of older adults who are experiencing cognitive decline despite being free of degenerative disorders.

These changes to their cognition, for example memories as shown in Figure 3 , however small, are impacting the daily lives of an increasing number of people and efforts must be made to further understand healthy ageing in order to cater to the day to day lives of the elderly.

Imaging the aged brain would not only give us better standards against which to create the benchmark of healthy cognitive ageing, but it would also reveal more about the connectivity and functional methods of the brain.

If certain functions are discovered to be lost over time due to degeneration, more could be illuminated about the functionality of both older and younger brains.

Especially on the technological brink of imaging, more information on the structure, function, and working principles of the brain can only help in establishing both the standard of and deviations from healthy brain function.

The human brain is the most complex, powerful and mysterious organ of the human body 83 , Although scientists have been avidly discovering the secrets of the brain, the knowledge accumulated so far still falls far short of a comprehensive understanding.

Thanks to modern biomedical imaging technologies, our understanding of the brain has advanced over the last few decades at an accelerated speed 85 , Looking back, the history of neuroscience is also a history of applying new imaging technologies to look at the brain in a more informative way.

However, imaging the human brain is also the most challenging application for many imaging technologies because the brain functions as a highly-coordinated system with functional connections at various spatial scales ranging from the single cell level e.

Large efforts are currently supported by the NIH BRAIN Initiative to image brain functions at different scales and to understand the relevance of its dynamics during development, aging, and in disease 87 , Human brain mapping has become one of the most exciting contemporary research areas with major breakthroughs expected in the following decades.

So far, many imaging technologies have been applied for imaging aged brains in preclinical studies and clinical practice 89 - These technologies can be grouped into three major categories based on their spatial resolutions and corresponding maximum imaging depths: microscopic imaging, mesoscopic imaging, and macroscopic imaging.

Here, we will briefly introduce the representative imaging technologies in each group, together with their strengths and limitations in brain imaging.

Moreover, optical imaging can provide rich image contrast by using a large library of exogenous optical labels such as fluorescent dyes, quantum dots, and genetically encoded fluorescent proteins.

The advantage of optical imaging over electrode recording is the high throughput that supports simultaneous interrogation of thousands of neurons, allowing the study of neural circuits and networks.

However, the drawback of optical imaging is also clear: the penetration depth is limited to the superficial brain tissue, typically less than 1 mm into the brain tissue, mainly because of the strong optical scattering of the tissue.

Multi-photon microscopy takes advantage of the longer excitation wavelengths and has achieved a penetration depth of 1. Nevertheless, optical imaging is mainly used for small animal brain imaging, such as on fruit flies, zebra fish, and mice.

Invasive methods have also been developed to circumvent the imaging depth by inserting miniaturized optics into the brain tissue , , which, however, may induce undesired damage to the brain functions.

Mesoscopic imaging can provide structural and functional information on the neural circuit level, and more importantly, deep penetration into the brain.

In particular, X-ray CT and MRI are routinely used for human brain imaging in clinical practice , , allowing simultaneous mapping of the whole brain including structures such as the gray and white matter volumes as well as tissue density Figure 5B,C.

More advanced technologies such as contrast-enhanced X-ray CT and MRI have been used in imaging brain vasculature in neurological diseases such as stroke, AD, and brain tumor , The advent of in vivo diffusion tensor imaging DTI allows direct measurement of the bulk tissue microstructure ordering by virtue of mapping water proton motions within the tissue microenvironment DTI has been playing an important role in studying the aged brain, especially in studies on neurodegenerative processes that cause changes at the microstructural level through the rate of myelination or demyelination, degradation of microtubules, or loss of axonal structure Ultrasound imaging is not typically used for the brain, with the skull as a physical barrier to the acoustic waves , Transcranial Doppler ultrasound has been applied to study blood flow velocity, arterial pulsatility, and resistance with aging.

The results have collectively shown that cerebrovascular hemodynamics may carry important implications in vascular diseases associated with advanced age, increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, cognitive decline, and dementia.

At the macroscopic level 1 mm to 1 cm , fMRI - , PET - , and diffuse optical tomography DOT - are the major imaging techniques being used to study brain function and metabolism.

Based on different contrast mechanisms, all these imaging techniques can provide the macroscopic functional status of the brain in the resting state and under stress.

As a totally noninvasive imaging modality, fMRI has been the most popular tool in studying the cognitive decline in both diseased and aged brains and has shown that healthy aging reduces the cerebral hemodynamic responses to visual challenges DOT has been a relatively new player in functional brain imaging, compared with fMRI and PET.

Increased blood volume and oxygenation are two important physiological parameters measured in DOT. DOT typically can provide brain functions only in the neocortical layer, limited by the penetration depth of near-infrared photons through the intact scalp and skull.

However, compared with fMRI and PET, DOT is more portable, much faster, and can provide real-time monitoring of brain function. Moreover, DOT is a much less expensive technology.

As the brain ages in health and in disease, there are numerous structural, functional, molecular, and cognitive changes at a wide range of scales from cellular to whole organ levels.

These changes are intrinsically interconnected through the extremely complex signal pathways and neural networks in the brain.

Alterations of the aging brain can result from multifactorial processes and be reflected by many functional and molecular biomarkers. Ptolemy also writes that it was a metropolis on the bank of the Vaitarani.

These two accounts give us the information that it was a town. Most probably, the city Tosali also derived its name from that of its inhabitants the Tosalas.

R, S Mahanadi, Tyndis or Brahmani, Dosarne or Vaitarani and Adamas or Suvarnarekha. He mentions the sea ports Mina Nagara Kosala and Kosamba in Orissa.

On the banks of the Dosarne or Vaitarani, he mentions three towns viz, Tosaliuma metropolis, Kerikardama and Benugaram. All these places are identified with the site of Benugaram which is undoubtedly the modern Benusagar.

As there is a large tank in this place, it is called Benusagar. But its real name is Benugarh. Lalgarh, Krishnagarh and Benugarh are situated very close to one another in the same southern border of Singabhum Gazetteer of Singabhum.

Benugarh comes from the words Benu Forest and garh fort. That is, it was a fort situated in the forest. Benugarh and Benudurga are the synonymous terms.

Similarly Benusagar also means a forest lake. Benusagar is the largest tank in this place. Each side of Jalaput' or water logged area is cubits.

It is overgrown with vegetation. The sculpture both in design and execution is similar to temples that are surmised to date back to the 7th century A.

This must be Kerikardama of Ptolemy and Tosalium is the modern Khiching, asf there is no other place which can be identified with Tosalium.

Beglar speaks very highly of the sculpture at Khijjinga and considers these to belong to eighth century A. Again we see that the village Solanapur referred to in the.

This proves beyond doubt that the Tosala country extended up to the river Vaitarani in the north. If so, what wonder there is in accepting the description of Ptolemy as accurate that the capital Tosali was on the Vaitarani?

With the help of the identification of Benugaram, we can easily make out that Tosali was also somewhere near Benugaram on the said Vaitarani; and there is no other place than Khijjinga which can be reasonably identified with the site of ancient Tosali.

If the other towns and seaports of Orissa mentioned by Ptolemy have been identified in exact places, if the people called Dosarnas are easily identified with a certain people bearing the same name in the Jajpur Division, the site of ancient Tosali on the Vatarani can also be easily located in the vast , ruins known as Khijjinga and the ancient place of Benugarh leads us quite reasonably to come to such a conclusion.

Further, we learn that in ancient time Kalinga did not extend beyond the present District of Ganjam and it is possible fci every way to establish the capital in such V6L.

J KOTA chiefs of AMARAVATI a central place which would always be in frequent touch with the Imperial Province of Magadha on one hand and the newly conquered Southern Province of Kalinga on the other.

So there is every possibility of Tosali being situated on the Vaitarani as mentioned by Ptolemy. Taking all these facts into consideration it is possible to identify Tosali with modern Khijjinga in Mayurbhanj whose border is being ever washed by the water of the sacred Vaitarani.

KOTA CHIEFS OF AMARAVATI. A Correction, By J. RAMAYYA PANTULU B. In the postscript to his previous article on the Kota Chiefs of Amaravati, published in the last issue of this Journal, my friend Mr.

Krishna Rao has fallen into a bad error in interpreting the Telugu Verse on which he bases the theory that the surname of the Kota Chiefs was Pole or Polevaru.

Vide Verse quoted by him. In fact, ailanepole is a redundant expression and that is, perhaps, the reason which led to Mr. But such redundant expressions are not uncommon in Telugu poetry.

It will suffice to refer to two instances viz. The central idea of the Verse is that Dhananjayundu, the founder of the K6ta family was born in the fourth caste.

This fact is compared to three similar incidents — viz. To fit in with this scheme, Varijatamuna in the lotus should be taken as one word.

It is easy to expatiate on the untenability of Mr. My interpretation of the telugu verse and the theory based on it regarding the surname of the Kotas of Amaravati seem to be untenable after reconsideration.

KADHA NIYAMAS. There is no denying that evil is prevailing everywhere in this world. All rational beings are fully conscious that they have long been suffering from evil in some form or other; This evil, as recogni- sed in the Sankhya and the other allied systems of philosophy, consists of three varieties, namely 1 Adhyatmika-diseases of the body and mind 2 Adhibhautika-injuries occasionally caused by harmful animals such as tigers, bears etc.

Notwith- standing the fact that the people have long been struggling hard to be rid of this evil, it has not been possible to find an effective means of getting relieved from this misery.

There has thus been in this world a long standing demand for such means. For this purpose it was' that the various systems of philosophy are known to have come into exis- tence.

It has been the fundamental, aim of all the systems of philoso- phy to solve this problem. So every system of philosophy has endeavoured to furnish the people with an infallibly effective remedy which can annihilate this evil once for all and thus secure for them the absolute salvation Atyantika Mukti.

Before proceeding straight to the final solution of this problem, every system has had to discuss many topics relating to the various phenomena of this visible world.

While doing so it has unavoidably to draw the attention of the people to the necessity of recognising the existence of a supreme spirit which is all-powerful, omniscient and omnipresent, and which is capable of controlling and shaping the destinies of all living beings in accordance with the time-honoured principle — Karma.

It is this supreme spirit that has been designated as God. The various systems of philosophy hold diverse theories in respect of the aforesaid funda- mental phenomena of this universe as well as the nature and functions of this God.

While so doing it has to deal separately with each system and carry on a regular controversy with it. A controversy should be conducted on certain prescribed principles.

Hence ajose the necessity to frame such principles and rules as could serve immensely by way of guiding the parties engaged in the controversy, from the beginning to the end.

J KADHA NIYAMAS 45 Controversy, as accepted by all the experiments of Sastras, consists of three varieties, namely, discussion Vadakatha , wrangling Jalpakatha and cavilling iVitandakatha.

Of these, discussion is that kind of contrpversy which is carried on by two disputants with the main object of directly ascertaining the absolute truth underlying the topic in question.

Wrangling is that variety of controversy which is carried on by two disputants with the main object of vanquishing each other.

Cavilling Vithandakatha is that kind of controversy in which each disputant simply endeavours to demolish, on grounds valid or not, whatever is said by the opponent, without caring either to substantiate his own theory or even to ennumerate the same.

In dis- cussion generally, good-natured and fair-minded persons such as the teacher and the pupil or two friends or it wo co-pupils are engaged.

When two good natured persons are engaged in discussion, the ascertainment of truth is rather intended for the spect itor.

But when the teacher and the pupil are engaged, the truth is sought for by the pupil alone. In wrangling, good-natured persons are engaged and intend either to satisfy the mutual spite or to acquire reputation wealth and such like extraordinary benefits.

Cavilling is generally carried on by wicked persons alone. In discussion, success consists in one party establishing his own point and refuting that of the oppo- nent; so also in the case of wrangling.

But cavilling is to close with one party demolishing the position of the opponent without even seek- ing to maintain his own ground. It is quite obvious that, while a controversy is going on, same competent umpires Prasnikas or judges are required in order to see that the principles of controversy are duly observed, and to decide the final result.

In discussion one disputant is to investigate the truth by discussing with the opponent or some- times with the umpires also when necessary.

Those who are to serve as Judges in this connection should be free from love and spite, and be well-versed in all the branches of knowledge.

They shall be of an odd number 3, 5 or 7, so that they might decide the final result by majority when there is difference of opinion, Cr there may be a single judge provided he possesses these qualifications— he must be corape tent, enough to square up the differences, to solve all doubts that might arise in the course of the controversy, and to bring the controversy to a proper close; he must be magnanimous and be free from all defects and blemishes; he must have definite and well-settled views in regard to all the general topics which would come up for controversy.

The duties of the umpires are the following:— 1 Deciding the place of controversy 2 Deciding as to the kind of controversy that is to be carried on 3 Distinguishing the previous statement made by a disputant from tbe subsequent one 4 Deciding about the merits and the demerits of the refutants 5 Encouraging the defeated party and 6 Deciding about the final result of the controversy.

So the presence of capable judges is quite necessary in order to carry on the controversy in accordance with the prescribed rules, and to bring it to a proper close.

The actual procedure to be adopted in a controversy is as follows: — When questioned, during Discussion, by the opponent, the disputant should cite, by way of authority, either a Vedic text or some other passage equally valid and authoritative which can ensure the confirmation of his point; but he ought not to criticise the question of the opponent in a crooked manner, nor should he put forward a defective syllogism or a false text.

For what the disputant aims at is the ascertainment of the truth and not the defeat of the opponent. Truth can be ascertained by means of a valid authority, and not by criticising the question of the opponent in an improper manner.

For this reason it is that the disputant is required to quote either a Vedic text which is self-evident, or a Srnrti text which is equally valid and really helpful in leading to the ascertainment of the absolute truth.

But he cannot be said to win thereby ; he should also cite a verbal authority in support of his own point. It is only by means of a verbal authority that a point can be gained.

When the opponent has thus refuted the argu. He must necessarily do so in order to ensure the confirmation of his own point.

This he can do by interpreting the verbal authority quoted by the opponent, suitably to his own point. The disputant cannot stop here. He must also disprove the other interpretations put upon his own verbal authority by the opponent.

Even now the absolute truth cannot be said to be clearly realised; for when the disputant refutes the interpretation proposed by the opponent, and alleges that his inter- pretation is the correct one, the opponent also can equally contend that his interpretation is the correct one.

Although the disputant has thus established the correctness and validity of his interpretation, and clearly demolished the position of the opponent by successfully interpreting his verbal authority in a different way, the controversy cannot be said to close.

After the real meaning of the verbal authority quoted by the disputant has thus been determined, the real sense of the text quoted by the opponent should also be determined in a similar manner, by both the parties assembled as friends.

In case the opponent asks for a valid authority in relation to such points as are based only on perceptive evidence or personal evidence, the disputant can put forth perceptive evidence or personal evidence, as the case may be.

It must be remembered that syllogistic reasoning should not be resorted to by either party except when no other evidence is available. Thus Dis- cussion is to go on till the absolute truth underlying the topic at issue is ascertained.

But it ought not to stop with the mere defeat of one of the parties. Suppose the defeated party recollects an authority and raises a doubt, or one or more of the spectators may raise doubts.

In either case, irrespective of the number of persons participating in the discussion, it may be prolonged to any length until the absolute truth is arrived at beyond all doubts.

If however, after employing such vitiating arguments, the defeated party could resume the Discussion in the proper manner, he must be admired for it, and the other party should be regarded as his teacher.

If, on the other hand, the defeated party should, out of inability, desist from the Discussion, he must be condemned or even fined and punished in case of serious blunder.

Wrangling Jalpakatha can go on until one of the two parties is unconditionally defeated. In wrangling a defeated either when he utters anything which conflicts with the point at issue, or is inconsistent, oris not becomes silent.

So also in the case of- Cavilling Vithandakatha. But he may be declared as simply defeated. If, out of anger, he should refrain from the controversy, he must be condemned and even punished with a fine.

In Wrangling, the Umpires Prasnikih need not be found fault with although they fail to repeat the statements made by the disputants. In the case of Wrangling the parties are to be declared as defeated, if they are found wanting in respect of learning.

This could be ascertained even before the wrangling is started, by holding a competitive literary test which would help in determining the relative fitness of the two parties.

When either party happens to utter any- thing faulty by mistake, he should not be considered as defeated. Thus have been explained in detail 1 the three varieties of Contro- versy which are still in practice in our daily life 2 the necessity for the presence of Umpires during the controversy and 3 the circum- stances by which the victory or defeat of either party is determined by the Umpires and the Spectators.

SUBBA RaO, M. This is a set of three copper-plates strung on a, ring which had no seal affixed to it when it was handed over to me by the Honarary President of the Society, Sir A.

Patro, Kt. The set was discovered along with pieces of pottery and bricks on a spot, where an old temple with a Saivite lipgam was unearthed, in the village of Tirjingi near Tekkali, Ganjam Dist.

Description of the plates : — The plates are three in nuipber and they are strung in the ring, the edges of which are left open. Probably the seal was struck off in the act of digging.

The ring without seal weighs tolas, while the three plates weigh altogether tplas, so that the whole set is only 69 tolas.

The circumference of the ring measures 11 inches, while its diameter is 3 inches. The rod is oply one inch thick.

Each of the three plates measures 84 inches by 3 inches, while the thickness varies from 4 to 4 inch.

The first and third plates are thinner than the second plate. They contain writing only on the inner sides, the outer sides being left blank to serve as covers to the inner writings.

The second or middle plate coptains writing on both sides and hence it is thicker. The edges of all the three plates are raised into rims so as to protect the writing.

The inner sides of the first and third plates contain each 7 lines, while the obverse and reverse sides of the middle plate contain each 6 lines only, so that in all we get 26 lines of inscription.

The letters are bold and clear apd the writing is very well preserved throughout. The language is Sanskrit but theire are many grammatical errors.

Excepting the two Vyasa Sloka3 at the end, the whole inscription is in prose pnly. However, in words like Sambamdha, Kutumbina etc.

The doubling of consonants in several places is also seen. The said village was granted, free from all obstacles and dues line All the assembled cultivators are ordered to observe towards this grant all the previous and customary rights belonging to it line The future Kings are also requested to protect this gift and to continue it as coming from their dynastic members lines , Then follow the usual benedictive and impre- catory verses lines The latter half of 25th line contains the date in numerical symbols, viz.

Represented by a symbol. Sdoond plate. First side. Second plate, Second side. Rudrasvimi sunavd Agnisvarain6 tattanujayacha RudrasvaminA Bhavishya tascha Rajn6 vijnapayami DharmmakramavikramS 6.

Third plate, First side. Atmaram for helping me with regard to some readings. THE TIRLINGI COPPER-PLATE GRANT. About two years back, a woman of Tirlingi, a village near Tekkali, Ganjam Dt.

In Dec , , my friend, Pandit Lingaraja Misro of Parsuramapuram, came to know of the discovery and brought the plate from the woman, just while she was going to melt it in order to prepare a set of copper bangles.

The plate was sent to me for examination, and I found it to be the last plate of the missing set. Society, to whom I showed the rubbings of the plate, to publish it, I am now editing it.

The discovery of this one plate is a matter of sorrow no doubt, but at the same time it is of vital importance to the history of our country.

Hence, it is an unpleasant discovery. The weight is about 6 tolas. The hole, through which runs a copper ring, is 4" in diameter.

The edges of the plate are not raised into rims, in order to protect the writing, as generally done in the copper plates of the Early Qanga Kings of Kalinga.

So, some letters are damaged. On one face of the plate, five lines of subject matter are inscribed, whereas on the second face only two.

Each line, in average contains about 17 letters. Varmma, Indra Varmma, Nandaprabhanjana VarmmA etc.

On paleographic al grounds, this plate would be placed in the 7th century A. There is little matter to discuss either on phrasiology or orthography.

Plate, First side. Plate, Second side, 6. Vinayachamdren6ti2 From the original plate. As regards the donor of this plate, the question may be raised whether be belongs to the Early Ganga family or not.

Both the points shall be carfully examined in the ensuing paragraphs. Hence, I think, that Bhanu Chandra, father of Vinaya Chandra, might have been either a renowned engraver of that period or a distinguished person in the courts of the Early Ganga Kings of Kalinga.

The following points led me to think about the relationship between Vinayachandra and Pallava Chandra: — i. The co-ordination between the meter of Vinaya Chandra in the plates of Hasti VarmmA and Indra VarmmA, and that of Pallava Chandra in the Plates of Devendra VarmmA.

Both of them seem to be the court engravers of the kings of the Ganggl Dynasty. Now, above all, there is another interesting point to be dis- cussed, viz,, the age of our engraver.

Both the plates are engraved by one man; and he is our Vinaya Chandra, son of Bhtou Chandra. The period between the two plates is about 60 years.

Hence, there is little difficulty to infer that our distinguished engraver Vinayachandra, beautifully engraved the plate of Indravarmma, probably, in his eigh teeth year.

Now, I shall conclude this article after a short discussion of another interesting topic. Ramadas B. As we go to the later period, we find the name of the Era to be more lengthy.

Varmma G. Early in , the Kanarese Epigraphist discovered a stupa on the Ramireddipalli Qummudidurru hillock, 6 miles off Madira Railway Station on the N.

These slabs are a few of the many that were ordinarily planted round the base of the mound as its railing. A few chips of marble bearing letters in Brahmi and a head of Buddha were also found here.

The existence of these important relics was reported for detailed examination and excavation to the Superintendent, Archaeological survey.

Superin- tendent and are now protected by Government. In , Mr. Mahamad Hamid of the Arch. Department visited the place and excavated it in several places, which can still be seen.

He succeeded in unearthing the base of a big stupa which is 30 ft. It is unfortunate that some of these sculptures should have been broken in the act of unearthing.

The bas reliefs which represent a mode of sculpturing figures on a flat surface, the figures being raised above the surface but not so much in high relief, found on the Ramireddipalli hillock, number 40 in all and are an excellent specimen of workmanship on marble, belonging to the 2nd or 3rd century A.

D, is a splendid array of Buddhist bas reliefs unearthed by Mr. Hamid at Gummididuru in Kistna Dt. The former are especially. Annual Report of S.

I, Ep. Vide Times of India, Illustrated Weekly for March The remains that have now been excavated at Gummididuru occupy an extensive plateau and comprise besides other structures a large stupa, two small stupas, remains of monastic buildings and other subsidiary edifices.

The main stupa of which only the base- ment has survived is adorned with a series of reliefs in grey marble, like the stupas of Amaravati and Jagayap6ta.

On the drum of the stupa are represented many incidents from the life of Buddha as well as from the Jataka stories. These miniature stupas in relief are no doubt copies of the great Stupa which they serve to embellish.

Besides sculptural remains, the recent excavations also brought to light 3 Prakrit Inscriptions in Brahmi characters of 2nd, 3rd C.

I covered a distance of about 28 miles by motor from Bezwada to Nandigaraa and then by a country cart, I reached Ramireddipalli which is about 6 miles off Nandighama.

I had a Photographer with me and 2 or 3 peons supplied by the Tahsildar and local Dy. Inspector to show us the way and to give us facilities requir- ed near the site.

On the way to Ramireddipalli, at one or two places, I found old temples, with Telugu inscriptions and some broken sculptures. The village of Ramireddipalli is a small hamlet and it is said to be an agraharam.

The hill, on which the archaeological discoveries were made, is only a furlong off Ramireddipalli and originally belonged to it but in recent years, it was transferred for revenue purposes to Gummididuru, a government village 2 miles off.

On reaching the top of hill, one can see with great relief and pleasure, a large number of villages all round within a distance of 2 or 3 miles.

Thus, there is Jonnalagadda, a Zamindari village a mile off; Sivapuram 2 miles off; and Konduru at the same distance. There is also Nandigama 6 miles off, Madhira at the same distance, Jagayyapeta a little more distant and other populous places.

Amaravati is 15 miles off. It would appear that at some time prior to 4th C. The hill is very small in extent and height. At the top of it we find a table land running south to north, one furlong in length and half a furlong in breadth.

Towards the north, there is again a rising hill and similarly towards the east, so that on two sides, the ancient monastery and stupa were protected, while the remaining sides were used and are still used, as pathways for getting up and down the hill.

Towards the southern edge of the hill we see the keeper of the monument as well as his thatched shed. Right in front of the keeper is the mound with the sculptures all round it.

The mound is 30 ft. The top structure is not found. In the medieval times, when Buddism suffered everywhere in India from the ravages of enemies, it was probably looted, burnt and sacked, or it may be that, when the Buddist monks no longer took their shelter there, time worked its own havoc.

Whatever may be the reason, the only existing part of the stupa is its base, around which we see at present forty Sculptured Slabs each depicting a miniature Stupa.

Readers of this journal who are quite familiar with the design on the cover of the Journal can easily recall to their minds the picture and the contents.

In front of the stupa and towards the north, excavations were made early in and as a result, the foundations of an old monastery have been unearthed vide plate I.

From the stupa to near where the writer of the article is standing, the length will be ft. At the end of the foundations, we get the beginning of the rising hill on the top of which the monks of old probably spent their time in philosophic discourse.

To the East of the monastery tfaera is a sort of small tank in which the rain water was probably collected and preserved for bathing or drinking purposes.

Vide my note pn the cover illustration in Vol. Plate I. It encases the mound towards where the keeper stands. A Stupa is a mound or funeral pile over the sacred relics of Buddha.

It is called Dagoba or Dhatugarbha which means a relic-dome. Every stupa consists of a circular or square base supporting a dome on which stands a square block or neck to hold a relic, crowned by a capital or head portion.

Above this will be found the umbrella or spire with one or more roofs. The stupas are generally enclosed amidst rails which are decorated with relief sculptures and connected by means of stone gates or toranas.

The art of the various sculptures is purely religious and artistic, and the spirit of it is Indian purely. But certain models of dress and form seem to have been borrowed from the Greeco-Roman Style.

The subjects for the sculptures are all taken from the life of the Founder. In addition, worship of religious symbols, processions to holy places and jataka tales are all depicted.

Vide plate 5. For instance, the dream of Maya, the mother of Buddha, the conversion of people, the preachings of Buddha to his disciples are all depicted.

The earliest Buddist creed— the Hinayana form— was non-idolatrous. The Buddist monks practised this kind of art not for vulgar amuse- ment but for spiritual improvement.

They also depicted the several beauties of Nature because they considered that all forces of Nature were symbols of their faith. Art and religion thus existed side by side.

Vide the illustrations. In course of time, the artist monks were no longel satisfied with erecting stupas but they encased them with marble painted sculptures on which scenes from Buddhas life, and scenes from Nature were all depicted.

Sculpture Ao. It is an illustration of a miniature stupa. As in Amaravati sculptures, so here, we find Buddha as a divine being receiving worship and he lesembles the Gandhara Buddha.

He is seated here at the bottom in a porch defended by four lions. The seated Buddha is preaching to devotees. There is also a standing figure in flc wing robes, evidently Buddha standing and preaching to devotees who aie also standing and listening with great attention.

These arc the numbers noted on the Sculptures by the Arch. Sculpture iVo. At the bottom, we see both Buddha and Dharmachakra.

Sculpture No, S is a white marble pillar of nearly four feet in height and rectangular in shape. It shows the figure of a throne in the centre and contains beautiful sculpture resembling the snake curls.

Sculpture No, 4 again contains the figure of a stupa as in No. Sculpture No, 5 is again a marble pillar containing sculp- tures as in No.

Sculpture No. His dress reminds us of the greek style of wearing upper robes. We find lotus creepers and hunters on lions at the top while at the bottom we see devotees with chamaras in hand worshipping some religious object like throne.

We also see two devo- tees seated with folded hands showing great reverence. On either side of the corner, at bottom, we see two couchant deers.

The whole sculpture presents an excellent combination between Art and Religion, Sculptures Nos. This alliance between Naga and Buddha is an old one and it indicates that Buddism had its first and ardent suppor- ters in the Naga tribe which at one time dwelt in the central and N.

India and gradually penetrated to the south of India. The Andhras like the Nagas were also ardent followers and patrons of Buddist faith.

No wonder therefore that as in Amravati, so in Ramireddipalli and other sculptures also, the Buddist figures are always depicted with the single hooded or three hooded or five hooded Naga protecting them.

To the left of the seated figure is a stand like object. Could it represent a Bo-tree? Below the seated figure is a standing figure of Buddha, 3 feet high.

At the top of his head is found the Dhjatma Chakra or Wheel of Law. The hair is curly. The ear-lobes alblong. The eyes are closed.

The feet are placed in a lotus, 63 V0L. At the corners, on each side of the feet, can be found a couchant deer facing the figure. At the bottom, directly under the right hand and below the couchant deer, can be seen a reclining devotee wearing a turban and folded robes.

His right leg is folded back under the thigh, while the hands are raised to offer respect. Underneath the lotus and in front of the seated figure is a Sanskrit inscription of four lines written in Vengi Characters of 5th century A.

Vide the Salankayana Plates of Nandivarma edited by me in Vol. I, Pt. II of J. But this does not mean that the stupa also was of the same period.

The Stupa must be much older. It might belong to first or second century A. These Prakrit inscriptions record the construction of a mahachaitya by a native of Dakhinapatha and mention Khaudavisa of Mugiyas.

From the Buddhist stupa at Jaggayapeta, a similar stone statue of Buddha, dressed in Greeco-Roman style was obtained and placed in the Madras Govt.

Under the statue is found a similar Sanskrit inscription stating that Chandra Prabhacharya, a disciple of Jayaprabhacharya who was in turn a disciple of Nagarjunacharya had constructed the image or statue of Buddha.

The four lined Sanskrit inscription found underneath the figure of Buddha at Ramreddipalli is given below: — It is 10 inches long at the top and 9 inches at bottom.

Its width is 4 inches. The characters are clear and bold except in two or three places. TEXT 7 1. Pratima pratishta pita Sarvva satvanamanuttaraji 4.

Vide Annual Report of S. From the impressions taken from the stone and from Photo of Inscription. Ramakrishna Kavi for helping me with regard to fomc readings in this line.

Except sculpture No. Thus sculpture 14 resembles the sculpture in plate IV, with regard to the containing of Dharma Chakra or Wheel of Law in the central panel and its worship by devotees on each side and at the bottom.

But sculptures 15 and 17 contain a seated Buddha at the entrance. At each top corner, there is a Vidyadhara while at bottom are found two devotees in kneeling posture.

On all the sculptures are found the usual five pilasters on the dome and on either side of the f ilasters we got sTjenes of hunting or preaching, depicted.

It is curious that several figures of animals and human beings could be so skilfully and beauti- fully portrayed on the marble which is conveniently marked off into so many compartments by walls or pillars of partition.

At the summit of the stupa on either side Fig 15 a crowd of adoring spirits— Vidhyadharas hover round and dance as in joy. The summit is marked by a Bo-tree within rails.

There is frieze work all over the stupa. The top most frieze contains on either extremity a couple of lovers standing in a peculiar posture. Viewing from left to right, we get 1 Buddha sitting on a throne and preaching to seated devotees 2 Buddha standing, head placed in a wheel of Law, dress flowing and in folds after Gandhara fashion, and preaching to standing devo- tees.

By his side there is an empty throne, and close to it there are a few women standing. Thus alto- gether there are 5 compartments in the whole frieze work.

Sculptures Nos, IS and 19 plate V one below the other, are 2 beautifully worked out cornice slabs round the plinth of the Buddhist stupa.

Between scene and scene are found pillars of partition containing between them a loving couple. The scene to the right relates to a procession in which three horses carrying a rider each and two elephants with their Princely riders attended by two attendants are seen.

The scene to the left points but a Buddha seated on the throne attended by a standing figure on either side, half a dozen cross-legged sitting devotees whose V0L.

The rider and his followers are also dejected. Could it be that the elephant trampled some one and Buddha was trying to console the parties?

The right scene contains a Buddha seated on his throne. On each side there is a standing attendant and a sitting devotee worshiping the throne.

On each side are found four devotees sitting cross legged. Evidently, Buddha is preaching a sermon which they are attentively following.

The scene to the left contains in the centre a royal figure attended on each side by a female probably the queen and all the three are sitting on a long sofa-like structure.

Behind the royal figure and on either side can be seen an attendant with a chamara in hand. At the top corners on either side can be seen a couple of female attendants.

Below are found ten female attendants wearing jewels for the head, neck, ear, wrist and ankle. Each figure is gracefully cut out so that the whole scene is fascinating.

This scene is one of joy as opposed to the scene of sorrow depicted in Sculpture No. The whole party may be a dancing party because at the right hand corner of this scene one female is playing on flute while another holds a harp.

Sculpture 20 is a stupa. Sculpture 21 is a pillar like No. Sculpture 22 is a stupa containing a seated Buddha with the right hand raised as in preaching.

There is a hunting scene depicted at top while below are fouud two rows on each side showing riding scenes.

The activation in the beta band was the nearest to primary motor cortex because the decrease of beta power was stronger for verb processing around ms to ms [ 34 ] , occurring in the premotor cortex even without having an explicit motor task, revealing the retrieval and integration of action semantics for a certain word [ 40 ].

At ms, the electrode activated by the beta band of joke-nonjoke was P3, corresponding to BA39 the angular gyrus , which was related to both the mediation of the memory retrieval and the contradiction between what was expected from the retrieval and what was unusual [ 41 ].

The difference of joke-nonjoke reflected the contradiction between the setups and punchlines, so the activation of the beta band in this area at ms indicated the close correlation between the beta band activity and the incongruity resolution in processing Chinese verbal jokes.

At ms, the electrodes activated by the beta band in the regions of difference between jokes and nonjokes were Fz, FC1, FT8, T8, and P8, corresponding respectively to BA8 frontal eye fields , BA6 premotor cortex , BA11 superior frontal gyrus , BA21 middle temporal gyrus , and BA37 fusiform gyrus.

Among these activated brain regions, the superior frontal gyrus was identified to produce laughter consistently accompanied by a sensation of merriment or mirth [ 42 ] , which was a significant brain region involved to reveal the affective stage of humor processing.

In addition, the activations of middle temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus were also related to emotion processing due to their adjacencies to the limbic lobe.

Thus, we may conclude that beta oscillations may contribute to the mirth evoking in processing Chinese verbal jokes. A great number of studies have highlighted the features of verbal humor processing at the time windows of about ms, ms, and ms to illustrate the corresponding stage division: Incongruity detection, resolution, and mirth, but there were very few studies to investigate the features of P Previous studies revealed that the P component was closely related with the incongruity or the unmatching system in sentence understanding, so this experiment put emphasis on analyzing the time window of about ms to try to reveal the correlations between the P effect and Chinese verbal humor processing.

The results showed that three different conditions jokes, nonjokes, and nonsensical sentences in this experiment started to present significant differences from this time point, which signified that the incongruity detection in jokes and nonsensical sentences was already integrated and perceived at about ms after the stimulus onset.

In other words, prior to the N effect, there was already a specific semantic integration pre-processing in comprehending Chinese verbal jokes.

The oscillation analysis results, the beta band in particular, also supported this finding. The significant differences among three different stimuli in the beta band started to occur at about ms, and at ms, like ERP components results, all three stimuli activated their own peak values with significant differences, which indicated the critical functional role of the beta band in the incongruity detection in humor processing.

In addition, at ms, the power of the beta band of jokes and nonjokes increased to similar heights, much higher than that of nonsensical sentences, implying the more incongruity resolution of both jokes and nonjokes than that of nonsensical sentences.

Besides, the brain regions of differences between jokes and nonjokes also revealed the key role of the beta band in different stages in processing Chinese verbal jokes.

Although this experiment validated the processing model of Chinese verbal jokes from the aspects of both ERP components and oscillation activities, several limitations should be considered for further improvement in the future studies.

All jokes were screened by another group of participants different from the subjects in the current experiment beforehand, but we cannot exclude the possibility of individual differences in processing jokes.

For the material selection, it was hard to completely eliminate the semantic association for nonsensical sentences, but we tried to keep it low. The future research should include different stimuli in different languages to differentiate the characteristics of humor-processing mechanisms between Chinese characters and alphabetic words.

Furthermore, other types of verbal jokes, besides phonologic jokes, should also be examined to further explore the processing mechanism of Chinese verbal jokes.

Additionally, the degree of plausibility towards jokes could also affect the brain activities in the current experiment.

Meanwhile, different life phases should also be included in the variables in the future study to elaborate on the developmental characteristics in humor-processing mechanisms.

More examples of experimental materials are shown as Table A. Xue-Yan Li, Hui-Li Wang, Pertti Saariluoma, Guang-Hui Zhang, Yong-Jie Zhu, Chi Zhang, Feng-Yu Cong, Tapani Ristaniemi.

Processing Mechanism of Chinese Verbal Jokes: Evidence from ERP and Neural Oscillations. Journal of Electronic Science and Technology, , 17 3 : Xue-Yan Li , Hui-Li Wang , Pertti Saariluoma , Guang-Hui Zhang , Yong-Jie Zhu , Chi Zhang , Feng-Yu Cong , Tapani Ristaniemi.

Li, H. Wang, G. Zhang, and C. Zhang are with the School of Foreign Languages, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian e-mail: lixueyan dlut.

Saariluoma, Y. Zhu, and T. Ristaniemi are with University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä FI e-mail: pertti. Cong is with the Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian Xue-Yan Li was born in She received the B.

She received the Ph. Now she is working with the School of Foreign Languages, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, as an associate professor.

Her research interests include neurolinguistics and technology design. Hui-Li Wang was born in She is currently working with the Institute for Language and Cognition, School of Foreign Languages, Dalian University of Technology, as a professor.

Her research interests include neurolinguistics, cognitive linguistics, and second language acquisition. Pertti Saariluoma received both M. From to and in , he was a visiting researcher with University of Oxford, Oxford.

In , he was a visiting researcher with University of Cambridge, Cambridge. In , , and , he was a visiting researcher with University of Granada, Granada.

He has introduced a number of independent scientific paradigms. He is currently working with the Faculty of Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä.

His research interests include psychology and cognitive science and technology design. Guang-Hui Zhang was born in He received his B.

He is currently pursuing his Ph. His research interests include signal processing in electroencephalography, principal component analysis, independent component analysis, and time-frequency analysis.

Yong-Jie Zhu was born in He received the B. Now he is pursuing the Ph. Chi Zhang was born in He is currently working with the School of Foreign Language, Dalian University of Technology, as a lecturer.

His research interests include biomedical signal processing, brain-computer interface, and cognitive science. Feng-Yu Cong received the B.

He also received the Ph. Since March , he has been working with the Department of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä, as a postdoctoral researcher from March to August , a junior lecturer faculty position from September to June , and a tenure-track faculty position from July to December In May , he was conferred the title of docent adjunct professor, tenured academic title, ranking between lecturer and full professor in signal processing at the Department of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä.

Since December , he has been a professor with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology.

His research interests include signal processing, cognitive neuroscience, brain science, and machine learning. Tapani Ristaniemi received his M.

He is currently working with University of Jyväskylä, as a professor. His research interests include signal processing for wireless communications, brain signal processing, radio resource management, and optimization for wireless networks.

Abstract : The cognitive processing mechanism of humor refers to how the system of neural circuitry and pathways in the brain deals with the incongruity in a humorous manner.

The past research has revealed different stages and corresponding functional brain activities involved in humor-processing in terms of time and space dimensions, highlighting the effects of the time windows of about ms, ms, and ms.

However, much less is known about humor processing in light of the frequency dimension. A total of 36 Chinese participants were recruited in this experiment, with Chinese jokes, nonjokes, and nonsensical sentences used as the stimuli.

The experimental results showed that there were significant differences among conditions in the P effect, which signified that the incongruity detection had already been integrated and perceived at about ms, prior to the semantic integration at about ms.

This pre-processing is specific to Chinese verbal jokes due to the simultaneous involvement of both orthographic and phonologic parts in processing Chinese characters.

This indicated a continuity between the analysis of event related potential ERP components and neural oscillations and revealed the key role of the beta frequency band in Chinese verbal joke processing.

Introduction Humor is ubiquitous, happening in all individuals in all stages over a lifespan. Method and Materials 2. Figure options.

References [1] W. Martineau, J. Goldstein, and P. McGhee, The Psychology of Humor: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Issues , New York: Academic Press, Chan, T.

Chou, H. Chen, et al. Shibata, Y. Terasawa, and S. Campbell, M. Wallace, M. Modirrousta, et al. Coulson and R.

Du, Y.

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